For All Your Paving,
Decorative Stone &Fencing Needs
Chapter Stone Paving Limited,
Oldbridge, Drogheda,
Co. Meath, Ireland.
 

Advice

Constructive Tips


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Laying a paved area or a driveway is well within the ability of the enthusiast.

Taking a step by step approach to the project, it is possible to create a beautiful feature that will be enjoyed by you and the whole family. This paved area, patio or driveway, designed and created with a little care and attention, will add value to your home.

Planning

Start first with a sketch of all areas to be paved indicating the dimensions and the layout patterns.

Be sure to show in the drawing items like drains, the height of damp proof course, the fall or slope of the area and any other constraints to be taken into account, such as steps, lawns, walls etc. Usually a slope of 1:100 is quite sufficient to allow surface water to fall away from the buildings. Calculate the quantity of sand and cement needed for bedding the slabs. This mortar bed should be between 15mm and 40mm thick and at a ratio of 1 part cement to 6 parts sand.

Site Preparation

Ensure the area to be paved is firm and compact otherwise your paved area will suffer subsidence. The best option is to dig soft soil and replace with crushed stone with high dust content. Level your ground off at this point approximately 50mm below the finished level of the paved area. Start now by laying the first slab. It is best if you start with a corner slab and at the highest point of the area. A good idea is to use string and to mark out the area. This will help to keep the joints at 90 degrees to each other.

Laying

At this stage you will need a spirit level at least the length of the flag. You will need a trowel and a shovel. Mix the sand and cement together in batches that are manageable (by shovel or use a small mechanical mixer).

Put down a layer of mix where you are going to lay the slab. Level the sand cement mix out to a depth of approximately 50mm. Proceed to lay the slabs on this mix. Making sure slabs are in a straight line and level with each other.

Plan to lay your slabs in such a way that no traffic or weight crosses them for at least one day.

Take care that cement is kept off the surface of the paving or it will cause staining. The correct placement of each slab should be achieved first time. Do not apply excessive force on the slab, carefully check with a spirit level, apply gentle pressure until the correct placement is achieved. Lay the full slabs first then cut any odd shapes and sizes that are required. Use a stone angle grinder for cutting, this gives a good clean cut without breakages, before you cut measure and mark the slab. Cutting creates dust, so always cut away from the paving and always wears gloves, mask and protective eyewear.

Grouting

Can only be done on a dry day using a proprietary jointing compound from a reputable supplier. Never use sand and cement as this may cause staining and efflorescence problems. Responsibility for the performance of the jointing compound rests with the user and the manufacturer of the product. Jointing compound will only work effectively on paving that has been firmly laid on a sand and cement base which will prevent any movement in the paving when walked upon.
 

Care & Maintenance


Maintenance

Consult Chapter Stone before using any cleaning materials. Always test a small area before cleaning the entire patio. Algae and fungal growth can be cleaned by spraying with fungicide. Brushing and washing on a regular basis should be enough to maintain your patio.

To maintain the appearance of paving periodic cleaning is important two or three times a year. Regular brushing to prevent the build up of detritus is recommended. Scrubbing with a stiff brush, hot water, and a mild detergent is normally sufficient. Acid cleaners may damage the paving. Moss, lichen and weeds need to be treated with appropriate algaecides and fungicides normally available at builder’s merchants or garden centers. Always take care to follow the manufacturers instructions.

Efflorescence

Concrete products are made from naturally occurring materials, mixed with water. Once concrete is made and is subjected to weathering, moisture penetrates into the pores of the product and dissolves an element of lime contained within. Under damp conditions this solution, of calcium carbonate crystals which are white in appearance, migrate to the surface and usually form an extremely thin layer giving the effect of efflorescence.

All concrete products may suffer the temporary phenomenon of efflorescence. This is not detrimental to the performance of the product and Chapter Stone cannot be held responsible for its occurrence. This will normally clear with time. It is not possible to predict if and when efflorescence will occur as minor changes in the concrete, the curing conditions and the environment can cause its occurrence.

Efflorescence will be eroded by the rain, which is slightly acidic. As nature causes the problem, nature and time hold the cure.

Colour

Differential curing, site conditions, seasonal manufacture or a naturally occurring variation in the aggregates used in manufacture can cause slight colour and shade variations in individual concrete products.

Generally this is considered to enhance the natural stone effect and the colours will invariably weather together in time. The colours illustrated in this brochure are as accurate as the printing process will allow. Whilst every effort has been made to represent textures and colours, we recommend that you make your choice from actual samples of the product.

Weathering

All concrete products and stone are subject to natural weathering which may also affect the colour and surface texture over time.

Chapter Stone cannot be held responsible for weathering and effects of Mother Nature.

Reconstituted paving cures at different rates creating colour variations similar to the appearance of natural stone.

Sealing

All our paving must be sealed using a good quality sealer to protect from natural weathering, staining and fungal growth which occurs in nature. It is advisable to experiment on a small area at first as sealing may sometimes alter the colour slightly.

Before applying sealer it is important that paving is perfectly clean and dry. Responsibility for the performance of sealers and cleaners rests with the user and manufacturer of the product.

Power Washing

We recommend that power washing should NEVER be used on paving as it can damage the surface of the concrete. A deck scrub and warm soapy water are normally sufficient.

Returns

Chapter Stone WILL NOT take back any products or stone for refund so please check your measurements and quantities prior to delivery.

It is suggested when laying paving that the flagstones are ordered as a total batch at the same time and are drawn from several packs to enhance any colour variation. If you do not buy all the paving from one batch it may be difficult to accurately match the colour at a later date.

Chapter Stone paving is manufactured to replicate the authenticity of natural stone slabs and as such they do vary in thickness. All sizes are nominal. Should a product reach you in an unsatisfactory condition, and other than a naturally occurring one as described above, the defect would have to be apparent prior to laying. It is at this point that the supplier should be notified of such a fault, allowing time for the rejected product to be replaced.

If the complaint is raised after laying the product no responsibility will be accepted for any relaying or removing costs.

Liability

Liability in respect of any statement, warranties, conditions and representation made on behalf of Chapter Stone are limited in accordance with the terms set out in our conditions of sale which are available on request. Whilst every effort is made to give good advice, Chapter Stone cannot accept any responsibility for any loss, damage or injury sustained as a result of following the advice.

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